We’re busy reviewing the evidence on massage therapy. While we’re working, we share the summary from our predecessor website, Beyond Conventional Cancer Therapies.

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Massage Therapy

Key Points

  • Massage is the manipulation of muscles and other soft tissues in the body and may range from light stroking to deep pressure.
  • Clinical practice guidelines cite use of massage for managing anxiety, mood disturbance, pain, and peripheral neuropathy.
  • Massage may also help to improve sleep disruption, nausea, feelings of hopelessness and other negative emotions, physical complaints and markers of stress, quality of life, fatigue, and breast symptoms.
  • Massage therapy administered by a trained massage therapist is generally safe, with few adverse outcomes.
  • Massage therapy delivered by an oncology-trained massage therapist is recommended.

Massage is the manipulation of muscles and other soft tissues in the body. Massage may range from light stroking to deep pressure, with a goal to release tension or stress in the tissues. Studies of the benefits of massage find it an effective treatment for reducing anxiety, pain and muscle tension. It may help with other symptoms and conditions such as insomnia.1 Massage may be accompanied by aromatherapy.

Clinical Practice Guidelines

The Society for Integrative Oncology evidence-based clinical practice guidelines cite massage to manage these symptoms. The guidelines recommend massage as useful in integrative plans combining two or more therapies (multimodality treatment):2

  • Anxiety
  • Mood disturbance
  • Pain

Breast Cancer Guideline

Clinical practice guidelines for use of massage therapy with breast cancer:3

  • Can be considered for reducing anxiety
  • Recommended for improving mood disturbance

Chronic Pain Guideline

The 2016 American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline for managing chronic pain in survivors of adult cancers makes a weak recommendation for using massage.4

Peripheral Neuropathy Guideline

The patient-education resource from the American Society for Clinical Oncology (ASCO) advises an integrative approach including massage to manage peripheral neuropathy.5

Managing Side Effects and Promoting Wellness

Managing or relieving side effects or symptoms, reducing treatment toxicity, supporting quality of life or promoting general well-being

Stronger Evidence

The clinical practice guidelines described above reviewed all the evidence available at the time and concluded that massage therapy is effective for these symptoms (further research in footnotes since those guidelines were published affirms these findings):

  • Anxiety or depression
    • Modest improvement in anxiety among people with cancer in a meta-analysis of RCTs of both high and low quality6
    • Less anxiety among women with breast cancer with massage in a meta-analysis of RCTs7
    • No difference in anxiety among people with cancer with massage in a meta-analysis of RCTs of very low quality8
    • Substantially lower scores on stress among people with moderate baseline stress scores and not using using anxiolytics or antidepressants with massage compared to no treatment, and even higher scores when reiki was added after massage in a small RCT9
    • Less anxiety among critically ill adults with either aromatherapy or massage in a review of RCTs10
    • Lower measures of both stress and anxiety among people receiving massage either with or without Reiki compared to standard of care in a mid-sized RCT11
    • Lower anxiety among adult burn patients with massage from a trained massage therapist in a meta-analysis of RCTs12
    • Less anxiety among people with cancer receiving therapeutic massage compared to presence alone or standard care in a mid-sized RCT13
    • Less anxiety, depression, or mood disturbance among adults with cancer with massage in a review of RCTs14
  • Fatigue:
    • Improvement in fatigue among people with cancer in a meta-analysis of RCTs of both high and low quality15
    • Substantially less cancer-related fatigue during cancer treatment with relaxation exercise compared to usual care in a meta-analysis of RCTs16
  • Mood disturbance or depression,17 although one meta-analysis found no difference with massage18
    • Less mood disturbance among people with cancer compared to presence alone or standard care in a mid-sized RCT19
  • Pain,20 although one meta-analysis found greater reported pain with massage21
    • Improvement in pain among people with cancer in a meta-analysis of RCTs of both high and low quality22
    • Substantially less pain following surgery with single dosage massage therapy in a meta-analysis of RCTs of low quality23
    • The presence of depression or higher baseline psychological symptom frequency impacts the effect of massage therapy on pain, interference of pain, quality of life, 60-second heart and respiratory rates, and physical distress among people with advanced cancer24
    • Less pain and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use among people with cancer receiving therapeutic massage compared to presence alone or standard care in a mid-sized RCT25
    • No significant impact on cancer-related procedural pain among children with cancer compared to standard care in a meta-analysis of controlled trials26
    • Lower pain levels among adults with cancer with massage in a review of RCTs27
  • Peripheral neuropathy28
  • Quality of life:
    • Better quality of life among people with metastatic cancer compared to a non-touch control or usual care in a small RCT29
    • No improvement in health-related quality of life among people with cancer with massage compared to controls in a meta-analysis of RCTs of low quality30
  • Sleep disruption: massage, whether with or without aromatherapy, was associated with better sleep in cancer patients and survivors.31
  • Better sleep with aromatherapy, and better level of arousal with massage among critically ill adults in a review of RCTs32 >
  • Lowered blood pressure, respiratory rate, and heart rate among people with cancer receiving therapeutic massage compared to presence alone or standard care in a mid-sized RCT33

Emerging Evidence

Evidence shows further benefits of massage therapy for these symptoms, but study designs or methods are not always strong and conclusions are weak:

Primarily physical symptoms
  • Breast symptoms: reduced long-term symptoms relating to the breast in people with breast cancer34
  • Fatigue: reduced fatigue35 compared to other active therapies for cancer patients also experiencing pain,36 for patients in cancer treatment compared with usual care,37 or patients with breast cancer38 although one meta-analysis found no difference with massage39
  • Nausea: alleviated nausea40 although one meta-analysis found no difference with massage41 and another systematic review found weak evidence of effect42
  • No difference in anti-emetic use among women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy with an intervention combining healing touch, hypnosis, and massage compared to no intervention in a small RCT43
  • Physical complaints and markers of stress: reduced severity of subjective physical complaints and reduced markers of stress in survivors of gynecologic cancers (uterine, cervical, endometrial, ovarian, fallopian tubal, or peritoneal cancer) following Anma therapy (Japanese massage)44 and of physical and psychological symptoms in breast cancer patients with aromatherapy massage,45 although one meta-analysis found no overall difference with massage46
  • No difference in re-hospitalization rates, treatment delays, and infection rates among women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy with an intervention combining healing touch, hypnosis, and massage compared to no intervention in a small RCT47
Primarily mental or emotional symptoms
  • Hopelessness: reduced feelings of hopelessness in patients undergoing treatment48
  • Negative emotions, including anger: reduced anger and negative emotions in cancer patients49
  • Stress: alleviated stress in patients with cancer50
Other symptoms
  • Quality of life:
    • Improved quality of life score with aromatherapy massage51 or massage52 compared to no massage, although one meta-analysis found no difference with massage alone53
    • Moderately better scores on quality of life among people with moderate baseline stress scores and not using using anxiolytics or antidepressants with massage with or without reiki compared to no intervention in a small RCT54
    • No difference in quality of life among women with ovarian cancer undergoing chemotherapy with an intervention combining healing touch, hypnosis, and massage compared to no intervention in a small RCT55
  • Symptoms in children with cancer: massage alleviated pain, nausea, stress and anxiety56

Optimizing Your Terrain

Creating an environment within your body that does not support cancer development, growth or spread

Massage increased white blood cells and neutrophils in children with cancer.57

Cautions

Massage therapy administered by a trained massage therapist is generally safe, with few adverse outcomes.58 The National Cancer Institute urges massage therapists to take precautions with all cancer patients and avoid massaging specific vulnerable areas of the body. In addition, certain patients with multiple bone metastases may be at risk for fracture during deep massage.59

Massage therapy delivered by an oncology-trained massage therapist is recommended.60 Oncology massage therapists are keenly aware of any cautions and how to adapt massage for individual needs.61 See below for a website to locate an oncology massage therapist in North America.

Access

Massage therapists are widely available, including within many cancer centers. The Society for Oncology Massage has a search page to locate therapists in North America.

Some insurance plans pay for medically indicated massage therapy.

Integrative Programs, Protocols and Medical Systems

For more information about programs and protocols, see our Integrative Programs and Protocols page.

Resources

References

  1. Mayo Clinic Staff. Massage: Get in touch with its many benefits. Mayo Clinic. October 6, 2018. Viewed September 4, 2020.
  2. Deng GE, Frenkel M et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009 Summer;7(3):85-120; Deng GE, Rausch SM et al. Complementary therapies and integrative medicine in lung cancer: diagnosis and management of lung cancer, 3rd ed: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines. Chest. 2013 May;143(5 Suppl):e420S-e436S; Greenlee H, DuPont-Reyes MJ et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the evidence-based use of integrative therapies during and after breast cancer treatment. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2017 May 6;67(3):194-232.
  3. Greenlee H, DuPont-Reyes MJ et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the evidence-based use of integrative therapies during and after breast cancer treatment. CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2017 May 6;67(3):194-232.
  4. Paice JA, Portenoy R et al. Management of chronic pain in survivors of adult cancers: American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2016 Sep 20;34(27):3325-45.
  5. CancerNet. Peripheral Neuropathy. American Society of Clinical Oncology. May 2017. Viewed March 14, 2018.
  6. Boyd C, Crawford C et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(8):1553-1568.
  7. Lee PL, Tam KW, Yeh ML, Wu WW. Acupoint stimulation, massage therapy and expressive writing for breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2016;27:87-101.
  8. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  9. Kurebayashi LFS, Gnatta JR et al. Massage and reiki to reduce stress and improve quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2020 Oct 12;54:e03612. Portuguese, English.
  10. Thrane SE, Hsieh K et al. Could complementary health approaches improve the symptom experience and outcomes of critically ill adults? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019 Dec;47:102166.
  11. Kurebayashi LF, Turrini RN et al. Massage and Reiki used to reduce stress and anxiety: randomized clinical trial. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2016 Nov 28;24:e2834.
  12. Fardin A, Rezaei SA, Maslakpak MH. Non-pharmacological interventions for anxiety in burn patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2020 Mar;49:102341.
  13. Post-White J, Kinney ME et al. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2003 Dec;2(4):332-44.
  14. Calcagni N, Gana K, Quintard B. A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine in oncology: psychological and physical effects of manipulative and body-based practices. PLoS One. 2019 Oct 17;14(10):e0223564.
  15. Boyd C, Crawford C et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(8):1553-1568.
  16. Hilfiker R, Meichtry A et al. Exercise and other non-pharmaceutical interventions for cancer-related fatigue in patients during or after cancer treatment: a systematic review incorporating an indirect-comparisons meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018;52(10):651-658.
  17. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337; Dion LJ, Engen DJ et al. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: a randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;23:82-87.
  18. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  19. Post-White J, Kinney ME et al. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2003 Dec;2(4):332-44.
  20. Lee SH, Kim JY, Yeo S, Kim SH, Lim S. Meta-analysis of massage therapy on cancer pain. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2015;14(4):297-304; Boyd C, Crawford C et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(8):1553-1568; Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337; Maindet C, Burnod A et al. Strategies of complementary and integrative therapies in cancer-related pain-attaining exhaustive cancer pain management. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2019;27(8):3119-3132; Dion LJ, Engen DJ et al. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: a randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;23:82-87; Behzadmehr R, Dastyar N, Moghadam MP, Abavisani M, Moradi M. Effect of complementary and alternative medicine interventions on cancer related pain among breast cancer patients: a systematic review. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2020;49:102318; Fink J, Burns J et al. A quality brief of an oncological multisite massage and acupuncture therapy program to improve cancer-related outcomes. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2020 Sep;26(9):820-824.
  21. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  22. Boyd C, Crawford C et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(8):1553-1568.
  23. Kukimoto Y, Ooe N, Ideguchi N. The effects of massage therapy on pain and anxiety after surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pain Management Nursing. 2017 Dec;18(6):378-390.
  24. Ghesquiere A, Wyka K, Smith M, Kutner JS. Associations between psychological symptoms and treatment outcomes of a massage therapy intervention: secondary analyses of a randomized controlled trial. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019 Oct;46:116-122.
  25. Post-White J, Kinney ME et al. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2003 Dec;2(4):332-44.
  26. Jong MC, Boers I et al. Development of an evidence-based decision aid on complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and pain for parents of children with cancer. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2020 May;28(5):2415-2429.
  27. Calcagni N, Gana K, Quintard B. A systematic review of complementary and alternative medicine in oncology: psychological and physical effects of manipulative and body-based practices. PLoS One. 2019 Oct 17;14(10):e0223564.
  28. Lopez G, Eng C et al. A pilot study of oncology massage to treat chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2019;37(suppl 31; abstr 111); Oh PJ, Kim YL. [Effectiveness of non-pharmacologic interventions in chemotherapy induced peripheral neuropathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis] [article in Korean]. Journal of the Korean Academy of Nursing. 2018;48(2):123-142; Fink J, Burns J et al. A quality brief of an oncological multisite massage and acupuncture therapy program to improve cancer-related outcomes. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2020 Sep;26(9):820-824.
  29. Toth M, Marcantonio ER et al. Massage therapy for patients with metastatic cancer: a pilot randomized controlled trial. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2013 Jul;19(7):650-6.
  30. Lin WF, Zhong MF et al. Efficacy of complementary and integrative medicine on health-related quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Management and Research. 2019;11:6663-6680.
  31. Samuel SR, Gururaj R et al. Randomized control trial evidence for the benefits of massage and relaxation therapy on sleep in cancer survivors—a systematic review. Journal of Cancer Survivorship. 2020 Dec 2. Soden K, Vincent K, Craske S, Lucas C, Ashley S. A randomized controlled trial of aromatherapy massage in a hospice setting. Palliative Medicine. 2004 Mar;18(2):87-92; Kashani F, Kashani P. The effect of massage therapy on the quality of sleep in breast cancer patients. Iranian Journal of Nursing and Midwifery Research. 2014;19(2):113-118; Dion LJ, Engen DJ et al. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: a randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;23:82-87.
  32. Thrane SE, Hsieh K et al. Could complementary health approaches improve the symptom experience and outcomes of critically ill adults? A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Complementary Therapies in Medicine. 2019 Dec;47:102166.
  33. Post-White J, Kinney ME et al. Therapeutic massage and healing touch improve symptoms in cancer. Integrative Cancer Therapies. 2003 Dec;2(4):332-44.
  34. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  35. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337.
  36. Boyd C, Crawford C et al. The impact of massage therapy on function in pain populations-a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials: part II, cancer pain populations. Pain Medicine. 2016;17(8):1553-1568.
  37. Hilfiker R, Meichtry A et al. Exercise and other non-pharmaceutical interventions for cancer-related fatigue in patients during or after cancer treatment: a systematic review incorporating an indirect-comparisons meta-analysis. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2018;52(10):651-658.
  38. Pan YQ, Yang KH, Wang YL, Zhang LP, Liang HQ. Massage interventions and treatment-related side effects of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;19(5):829-841; Dion LJ, Engen DJ et al. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: a randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;23:82-87.
  39. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  40. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337; Fink J, Burns J et al. A quality brief of an oncological multisite massage and acupuncture therapy program to improve cancer-related outcomes. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2020 Sep;26(9):820-824.
  41. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  42. Wilkinson S, Barnes K, Storey L. Massage for symptom relief in patients with cancer: systematic review. Journal of Advanced Nursing. 2008;63(5):430-439.
  43. Judson PL, Dickson EL et al. A prospective, randomized trial of integrative medicine for women with ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology. 2011 Nov;123(2):346-50.
  44. Donoyama N, Satoh T, Hamano T, Ohkoshi N, Onuki M. Physical effects of Anma therapy (Japanese massage) for gynecologic cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial. Gynecologic Oncology. 2016 Sep;142(3):531-8.
  45. Ovayolu O, Seviğ U, Ovayolu N, Sevinç A. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2014;20(4):408-417.
  46. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  47. Judson PL, Dickson EL et al. A prospective, randomized trial of integrative medicine for women with ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology. 2011 Nov;123(2):346-50.
  48. Gross AH, Cromwell J, Fonteyn M, Matulonis UA, Hayman LL. Hopelessness and complementary therapy use in patients with ovarian cancer. Cancer Nursing. 2013 Jul-Aug;36(4):256-64.
  49. Pan YQ, Yang KH, Wang YL, Zhang LP, Liang HQ. Massage interventions and treatment-related side effects of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. International Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2014;19(5):829-841; Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337.
  50. Ernst E. Massage therapy for cancer palliation and supportive care: a systematic review of randomised clinical trials. Supportive Care in Cancer. 2009;17(4):333-337; Taylor AG, Snyder AE et al. Gentle massage improves disease- and treatment-related symptoms in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Journal of Clinical Trials. 2014;4:1000161; Dion LJ, Engen DJ et al. Massage therapy alone and in combination with meditation for breast cancer patients undergoing autologous tissue reconstruction: a randomized pilot study. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice. 2016;23:82-87; Fink J, Burns J et al. A quality brief of an oncological multisite massage and acupuncture therapy program to improve cancer-related outcomes. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. 2020 Sep;26(9):820-824.
  51. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873; Ovayolu O, Seviğ U, Ovayolu N, Sevinç A. The effect of aromatherapy and massage administered in different ways to women with breast cancer on their symptoms and quality of life. International Journal of Nursing Practice. 2014;20(4):408-417.
  52. Taylor AG, Snyder AE et al. Gentle massage improves disease- and treatment-related symptoms in patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Journal of Clinical Trials. 2014;4:1000161; Lin WF, Zhong MF et al. Efficacy of complementary and integrative medicine on health-related quality of life in cancer patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cancer Management and Research. 2019;11:6663-6680.
  53. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  54. Kurebayashi LFS, Gnatta JR et al. Massage and reiki to reduce stress and improve quality of life: a randomized clinical trial. Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da USP. 2020 Oct 12;54:e03612. Portuguese, English.
  55. Judson PL, Dickson EL et al. A prospective, randomized trial of integrative medicine for women with ovarian cancer. Gynecologic Oncology. 2011 Nov;123(2):346-50.
  56. Rodríguez-Mansilla J, González-Sánchez B et al. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2017;25:e2903; Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  57. Rodríguez-Mansilla J, González-Sánchez B et al. Effects of the application of therapeutic massage in children with cancer: a systematic review. Revista Latino-Americana de Enfermagem. 2017;25:e2903.
  58. Shin ES, Seo KH et al. Massage with or without aromatherapy for symptom relief in people with cancer. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016;(6):CD009873.
  59. Greenlee H, DuPont-Reyes MJ et al. Clinical practice guidelines on the evidence-based use of integrative therapies during and after breast cancer treatment. CA A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 2017 May 6;67(3):194-232.
  60. Deng GE, Frenkel M et al. Evidence-based clinical practice guidelines for integrative oncology: complementary therapies and botanicals. Journal of the Society for Integrative Oncology. 2009 Summer;7(3):85-120.
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