We’re busy reviewing the evidence on hyperthermia. While we’re working, we share the original summary from our predecessor website, Beyond Conventional Cancer Therapies.

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Hyperthermia

Key Points

  • Before using this therapy, consult your oncology team about interactions with other treatments and therapies. Also make sure this therapy is safe for use with any other medical conditions you may have.
  • Hyperthermia uses heat to treat cancer by killing the cancer cells directly, destroying nearby blood vessels, and stimulating an immune response against the tumor.
  • Hyperthermia may be used either through local or regional application or by heating the whole body.
  • It is often combined with cytoreductive surgery, radiation and/or chemotherapy.
  • Hyperthermia treatment is recommended for certain cancers in the National Comprehensive Cancer Network’s Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology.
  • Hyperthermia is widely available in Europe and some other areas, but not as readily in the United States. We provide guidance on finding a center for treatment.
  • Aside from the ablative techniques, hyperthermia carries a few risks of side effects, but these are usually relatively minor and quickly resolved.

Hyperthermia uses heat, such as from many forms of electromagnetic energy, to treat cancer by heating tumors. Heat may be used either through local or regional application or by heating the whole body.

“The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved hyperthermia for use in the treatment of cancer when combined with radiation therapy for the palliative management of certain solid surface and subsurface malignant tumors that are progressive or recurrent despite conventional therapy.”1                 

Types of Hyperthermia Treatments

Local or Regional Hyperthermia

Local hyperthermia is used to heat a small area, such as a tumor, using very high temperatures—40.5°C to 42.5°C (105°F to 109°F) for 1 to 1½ hours. Thermal ablation, a form of local hyperthermia, uses even higher temperatures (55°C/131°F). These temperatures can kill cancer cells directly, destroy nearby blood vessels and sensitize tumors to chemo- and radiotherapies.

Various forms of energy can produce the heat:

  • High intensity focused ultrasound, referred to as HIFU or focused ultrasound, uses ultrasound waves
  • Radiofrequency ablation, or RFA, uses high-energy radio waves
  • Capacitive radiofrequency hyperthermia uses low-energy radio waves
  • Microwaves

In regional hyperthermia, an organ, limb, body cavity or other body part is heated. The temperatures used may not be hot enough to destroy the cancer cells outright, and heat may be combined with chemotherapy or radiation therapy.2

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is a type of loco-regional hyperthermia that involves infusing and circulating warmed anticancer drugs in the peritoneal cavity (abdomen) for a specified time. HIPEC is typically done with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) in cancers that have metastasized to the peritoneal cavity. These metastases are called peritoneal carcinomatosis.

During cytoreductive surgery, chemotherapy heated to 40.5°C to 42.5°C (105°F to 109°F) is infused through a special catheter on peritoneal surfaces to treat any microscopic or small residual tumors to induce further cancer destruction.3

The National Cancer Institute considers HIPEC experimental in the treatment of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancers, and “such modalities should not be used as a substitute for IP [intraperitoneal] cisplatin-based regimens after initial therapy.”4

“The results of CRS-HIPEC are better when applied early in the disease process.”5 Some advise administering HIPEC in patients at high risk for peritoneal carcinomatosis (prophylactic HIPEC), although this use is still experimental.

Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy is not embraced universally by the conventional oncology community in the United States, nor is it as easily available there as it is in Europe and other locations. See the Access section below for more information.

The National Cancer Institute considers HIPEC experimental in the treatment of patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancers.

Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy (HITHOC)

Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) is the chest counterpart of HIPEC—warmed anticancer drugs are infused and circulated in the chest cavity. HITHOC is used to treat various pleural malignancies.

Whole-Body Hyperthermia

“Whole-body hyperthermia is used to treat metastatic cancer that has spread throughout the body.”

National Cancer Institute

Whole-body hyperthermia seems to activate anticancer components of the immune system as well as “raise the levels of cell-killing compounds in the blood.”6 According to the National Cancer Institute, “Whole-body hyperthermia is used to treat metastatic cancer that has spread throughout the body. This can be accomplished by several techniques that raise the body temperature to 107-108°F, including the use of thermal chambers (similar to large incubators) or hot water blankets.”7 Whole-body hyperthermia is also used to amplify immune responses in the body against cancer while decreasing the cancer cells’ ability to suppress or evade immune responses.8

Many centers use this therapy as a complement to other cancer treatments rather than as a stand-alone treatment. For example, whole body hyperthermia is often used alongside chemotherapy to enhance drug delivery, mainly by increasing the transport of chemotherapy drugs into cells and improving the movement of oxygenated blood to poorly oxygenated tumor tissues.9

Whole-body hyperthermia is considered an investigational therapy. No whole-body hyperthermia equipment is approved for use in treating cancer in the US, although centers do offer this treatment internationally.

Clinical Practice Guidelines

The US National Comprehensive Cancer Network cites an indication for intraperitoneal chemotherapy for patients with low-volume residual disease after surgical debulking for stage II or III invasive epithelial ovarian or peritoneal cancer.10

Treating the Cancer

Working against cancer growth or spread, improving survival, or working with other treatments or therapies to improve their anticancer action

Clinical Evidence

The use of hyperthermia alone (across the various types) has resulted in complete overall response rates of 13 percent. “Significant improvement in clinical outcome has been demonstrated for tumours of the head and neck, breast, brain, bladder, cervix, rectum, lung, esophagus, vulva and vagina, and also for melanoma.”11 Benefits have included remarkably higher (complete) response rates, improved local tumour control rates, better palliative effects and/or better overall survival rates. No increase in radiation toxicity has been found when used with radiotherapy.12

Loco-Regional Hyperthermia

Substantial evidence indicates that loco-regional hyperthermia sensitizes tumor cells to chemotherapy and radiation and improves outcomes such as local tumor control and overall survival. Studies and clinical trials in these cancer types have showed improved outcomes:

Bladder Cancer

  • Improved tumor down-staging and degeneration, with a non-significant trend toward longer survival in people with bladder cancer13
  • Improved complete response rates and improved survival among people with locally advanced tumours of the bladder14

Brain Cancer

  • Enhanced the effects of dose-dense temozolomide with less toxicity in recurrent glioblastoma15
  • Trend toward improved survival in glioblastoma with multimodal immunotherapy [immunogenic cell death (ICD) induced with Newcastle Disease virus (NDV) and modulated electrohyperthermia (mEHT), and dendritic cell (DC) vaccinations loaded with autologous tumor proteins]16 

Breast cancer

  • Enhanced effects of radiotherapy17 and chemoradiotherapy;18 tolerated with chemotherapy for treating breast cancer19

Cervical Cancer

  • Improved complete response rates and improved survival among people with locally advanced tumors of the cervix20
  • Enhanced radiotherapy21 or radiochemotherapy effects22 with cervical cancer

Colorectal Cancer

  • Improved complete response, regression of the primary tumor and survival with locally advanced rectal cancer23
  • Longer survival than expected in an uncontrolled study of people with liver metastases from colorectal cancer24

Esophageal Cancer

  • Improved response and survival when used with chemotherapy and irradiation in people with esophageal cancer25
  • Well tolerated with intensity-modulated radiotherapy26

Head and Neck Cancers

  • Improved complete response and survival in head and neck cancers27
  • Better response and survival than expected among people with recurrent carcinomas of the head and neck with metastatic cervical lymph nodes in an uncontrolled study28
  • Improved pathological complete response of both primary lesions and metastatic lymph nodes both with definitive irradiation and with preoperative irradiation; improved survival with preoperative irradiation29
  • Improved nodal control and five-year survival30
  • Better tumor control, but only in people with advanced cancer31   

Liver and Bile Duct Cancers

  • Good tolerance of sorafenib with electro-hyperthermia (EHY) and possibly improved outcomes with hepatocellular carcinoma32
  • Possibly improved outcomes with oxaliplatin and other therapies among people with chemo-refractory malignant primary liver cancer33
  • Improved well-being and no tumor progression with hyperthermia combined with gemcitabine/cisplatin for the treatment of unresectable cholangiocarcinoma following unsuccessful radiation and chemotherapy in one patient34

Lung Cancer

  • Better than expected survival among four people with with far advanced lung adenocarcinoma (stages IIIB and IV) with oncothermia and traditional chemotherapy treatments35
  • Improved survival and local relapse-free survival, with greater responses, among people with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer treated with radiofrequency capacitive hyperthermia compared to radiotherapy alone36 
  • Greater clinical benefit response rate when used with gemcitabine and cisplatin among patients with advanced non-small lung cancer, compared to gemcitabine and cisplatin alone37

Melanoma

  • Enhanced tumor response when added to radiotherapy among people with melanoma38

Pancreatic Cancer

  • Improved overall survival and response rate when added to radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy among people with pancreatic cancer in a systematic review39

Prostate Cancer

  • Comparable survival outcomes with with regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or both compared to other cohort studies involving radical prostatectomy and radiotherapy40
  • Safe, with adequate short-term prostate cancer control. Radical treatment was avoided in 91 percent of men with prostate cancer at two years41

Sarcoma

  • Improved local progression-free survival and disease-free survival, but not overall survival among people with high-risk retroperitoneal and abdominal soft-tissue sarcoma treated with etoposide, ifosfamide, doxorubicin42
  • Improved local progression-free survival,43 five-year survival and 10-year survival among patients with localized soft tissue sarcoma with regional hyperthermia added to neoadjuvant chemotherapy44

Stomach Cancer

  • Improved disease control rate, median survival and three-year survival among people with advanced gastric cancer treated with regional hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy compared to chemotherapy alone45

Loco-regional hyperthermia has also been used with bone metastases46 and peritoneal carcinomatosis.47 Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC)

A 2019 study found that cytoreductive surgery (surgery to remove tumors) combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (CRS/HIPEC) in patients with peritoneal metastasis was relatively safe, with fewer infections and complications, shorter hospital stays, and lower overall 30-day mortality than Whipple, right lobe hepatectomy, esophagectomy or trisegmental hepatectomy. The authors note that CRS/HIPEC “has been the only therapy to consistently achieve significant 5-year survival rates in patients with peritoneal metastasis who have tumors arising from the appendix, colon, rectum, mesothelium, and ovary.”48

A 2016 Chinese expert consensus on CRS and HIPEC for peritoneal malignancies came to these conclusions:49

  • CRS + HIPEC is an integration of technical advantages of CRS to reduce the tumor burden and HIPEC to eradicate the residual tumor foci, micrometastases and peritoneal free cancer cells, so as to completely eliminate both the primary tumor and metastases.
  • Several lines of evidence from well designed clinical studies have indicated that CRS + HIPEC is an effective strategy to treat peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC).
  • At the Ninth International Congress on Peritoneal Surface Malignancies held in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, 2014, the Peritoneal Surface Oncology Group International (PSOGI) officially proposed the International Recommendations for Cytoreductive Surgery (CRS) and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy (HIPEC). CRS + HIPEC is recommended as the standard treatment for appendiceal mucinous cancer, colorectal PC, and malignant peritoneal mesothelioma, and it is a recommended therapy for ovarian cancer and gastric cancer with PC.
  • The PSOGI also emphasized the necessity to carry out strictly designed prospective multicenter randomized clinical studies to improve the treatment strategy and efficacy, and to promote this comprehensive treatment approach in clinical oncology.

Colorectal Cancer

  • No improved survival and an increased risk of adverse events in colorectal cancer patients when adding HIPEC to cytoreductive surgery compared with receiving cytoreductive surgery alone50

Ovarian Cancer

  • While a 2016 review concluded that “due to the lack of randomised trials, the evidence of HIPEC is very limited,”51 and another review similarly concluded that “the absence of sufficient levels of scientific evidence to support the use of HIPEC in patients with ovarian cancer with peritoneal dissemination does not allow a general recommendation outside of clinical trials”,52 several other reviews and meta-analyses have been favorable:
    • Another 2016 review concluded that “cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC seem to be associated with promising results in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer.”53
    • A 2015 review concluded that “the addition of HIPEC to CRS and chemotherapy improves overall survival rates for both primary and recurrent EOC.”54
    • A 2018 review found “high quality prospective data suggesting a survival benefit to HIPEC therapy for patients undergoing primary treatment of EOC after receipt of neoadjuvant chemotherapy and optimal cytoreduction.”55
    • A separate 2018 review found “a strong trend for improvement of the long-term outcomes of patients with primary advanced ovarian cancer after HIPEC.”56
  • A 2009 review concluded that “complete CRS and HIPEC may be a feasible option with potential benefits that are comparable with the current standard of care” in ovarian cancer peritoneal carcinomatosis57
  • Ovarian cancer patients undergoing cytoreductive surgery (conventional treatment) with intraperitoneal hyperthermic chemotherapy showed significantly higher survival irrespective of surgical staging, tumor size after second surgery, or patient age, compared to patients receiving conventional treatment alone.58
  • A nonrandomized phase 2 study of patients with primary advanced or recurrent ovarian cancer and diffuse peritoneal carcinomatosis found “high adequate primary and secondary surgical cytoreduction rates with acceptable morbidity and mortality.”59
  • Among patients with stage III epithelial ovarian cancer, the addition of HIPEC to interval cytoreductive surgery resulted in longer recurrence-free survival and overall survival than surgery alone and did not result in higher rates of side effects.60
  • A 2010 report found evidence of extended survival.61

Hyperthermic Intrathoracic Chemotherapy (HITHOC)

A review and meta-analysis found that patients with malignant pleural effusion (excess fluid between the membranes lining the lungs) who received hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC) had significantly longer median survival than patients without HITHOC.62

A small retrospective study found that HITHOC added to surgery in patients with pleural malignancies may have increased survival, although this is not clear from the way results were reported.63

Whole-Body Hyperthermia

Evidence of effects in specific cancers is presented here. Many of these studies are small and uncontrolled (lacking a control group), so evidence is considered preliminary. Many also include patients who had few or no remaining conventional treatment options, with very poor prognoses.

Mixed Cancer Types

A 2006 study found that whole-body hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy for advanced cancer led to significantly better outcomes compared to chemotherapy alone.64

A 1993 small phase 1 clinical trial of patients with cancer refractory to conventional therapy found that whole-body hyperthermia plus carboplatin was well tolerated even at conventional carboplatin doses, with varying responses among 30 assessable patients:65

  • Lung cancer (two patients)—minor response in one, while the other experienced clinical improvement after whole-body hyperthermia plus carboplatin, but progression with carboplatin alone
  • Gastrointestinal neuroendocrine cancer (two patients)—complete response in one, while the other experienced clinical improvement after whole-body hyperthermia plus carboplatin, but progression with carboplatin alone
  • Pancreatic cancer (one patient)—partial response
  • Small bowel cancer (one patient)—partial response
  • Ovarian cancer (two patients)—complete response
  • Melanoma (one patient)—clinical improvement after whole-body hyperthermia plus carboplatin, but progression with carboplatin alone

A phase 1 clinical trial in 1988 found these results among 20 evaluable patients:66

  • Group A had no response among three patients.
  • Group B:
    • One lymphoma patient, partial response
    • Two gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma patients, one partial response and one improvement (less than a partial response)
  • Group C:
    • Two lung cancer patients, one complete response and one improvement
    • One melanoma patient, improvement
    • One ovarian cancer patient, disease stabilization greater than 100 days
    • Two patients with adenocarcinoma of the gastrointestinal tract, two disease stabilizations
    • 11 further patients with no responses

A 2006 study found that whole-body hyperthermia in cancer patients induced an increase in human growth hormone and cortisol, as well as an increase in natural killer (NK) cells and a decrease in T cells expressing L-selectin. Similar changes were not seen in healthy volunteers performing physical exercise.67

Breast Cancer

  • A 2018 case study of a woman with stage 4 triple-negative breast cancer with lung metastasis showed complete remission of her pulmonary metastases with transient WHO I-II diarrhea and skin rash. The patient remained alive for 27 months after the start of treatment.68

Cervical Cancer

  • A response rate of 33 percent was seen in recurrent and/or metastatic cervical cancer patients in a small study.69

Colorectal Cancer

  • An overall 20 percent response rate, with two complete and six partial responses, was seen among 41 evaluable patients with advanced colorectal cancer who had progressed during or within three months after completion of chemotherapy.70
  • Patients with metastatic colorectal cancer showed improved response to chemotherapy.71
  • Improved response to chemotherapy and potentially improved survival72

Melanoma

Patients with disseminated malignant melanoma did not see any advantage from hyperthermia treatment compared to multiple-drug chemotherapy without hyperthermia in a pilot study.73

Mesothelioma

  • Patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma showed an overall response rate of 20 percent, with one-year overall survival at 68 percent and two-year overall survival at 20 percent.74

Ovarian Cancer

  • A small study involved 21 patients with advanced ovarian cancer who had had first-line chemotherapy with cisplatin or carboplatin and relapsed. All patients received whole-body hyperthermia and platinum-based chemotherapy, with these results: one patient had a complete remission, seven patients had a partial remission, 10 patients showed stable disease, and three patients did not respond and had progressive disease.75
  • Patients with platinum-resistant ovarian cancer were treated with whole-body hyperthermia in combination with carboplatin. Of 12 evaluable patients, one had a complete response, four had a partial response, another four patients had stable disease and three patients had progressive disease.76
  • A 1990 review concluded that whole-body hyperthermia is supported in intraperitoneal (IP) cisplatin-based chemotherapy to provide prolonged disease-free survival in some women with residual peritoneal ovarian cancer following systemic chemotherapy.77
  • Whole-body hyperthermia in combination with carboplatin was an active salvage treatment option in patients with advanced ovarian cancer, but with significant hematological toxicity (anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia).78
  • A case study reported on four-year progression-free survival of a 54-year-old woman with advanced bilateral ovarian cancer.79

Pancreatic Cancer

  • Whole-body hyperthermia with gemcitabine and carboplatin was well tolerated, with median overall survival of 357 days, with a median progression-free survival of 140 days in patients with advanced and heavily pretreated pancreatic adenocarcinoma.80

Sarcoma

  • Patients with chemotherapy-resistant sarcoma with chemotherapy-resistant metastases to major organ sites showed greater response rates and median survival with whole-body hyperthermia treatment.81
  • Of 12 patients, seven patients experienced partial remissions, three patients experienced disease stabilisation, and two patients exhibited progressive disease.82
  • Patients with metastatic soft tissue sarcoma showed improved response rates with hyperthermia treatments.83

Lab and Animal Evidence

Click or tap to open.

Managing Side Effects and Promoting Wellness

Managing or relieving side effects or symptoms, reducing treatment toxicity, supporting quality of life or promoting general well-being

A study compared adding near infrared whole-body hyperthermia to standard multimodal rehabilitation for patients with fibromyalgia. Adding the hyperthermia treatment improved both sensory pain and affective pain (feelings of unpleasantness and emotions associated with future prospects). Few side effects were noted, all of which resolved within 30 minutes.88

Finding a Center for CRS/HIPEC Therapy

Some resources and strategies to try (CanccerChoices does not endorse or recommend any of these centers):

  • A 2016 article lists some centers in the US and Internationally which perform this procedure in high volume (see table 5) and provides criteria for determining if a surgeon/team/center is proficient in doing this procedure.89 Search the Internet for “Centers in the US doing CRS/HIPEC.” Ask how many of these procedures are done yearly at the center, as well as how many cases the individual surgeons have performed. The magic number for proficiency seems to be about 140 to 220 cases for a center and 33 to 70 cases for a surgeon.90 Ask about their outcomes for patients with your kind of cancer who have had this procedure: how many had surgical complications or died from the procedure and how long patients live after the procedure. See table 4 in the Rajeev et al. article for these outcome rates at selected centers.91
  • UPMC Hillman Cancer Center: Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemoperfusion (HIPEC) Treatment
  • Marlene and Stewart Greenbaum Comprehensive Cancer Center. Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC—FAQs
  • Johns Hopkins Medicine: Peritoneal Surface Malignancy Program
  • Dana Farber Cancer Institute: How We Treat Ovarian Cancer
  • Cleveland Clinic Cancer Center in Ohio
  • Texas Oncology
  • Cancer Treatments Centers of America
  • Dr. Kleef Medical Center in Budapest, Hungary
  • Consider joining a clinical trial studying hyperthermia for your particular type and stage of cancer. Clinicaltrials.gov: Hyperthermia

Consult The Moss Report for your type of cancer for guidelines of considerations and questions to ask, especially if you are considering getting cancer treatment outside the US.

Access

All forms of hyperthermia are widely available in German cancer clinics, some Mexican clinics, Austria and also from some individual practitioners. Local and regional hyperthermia is being used in the US, particularly for prostate cancer. Ralph Moss, in his Moss Reports, provides information on its use at Cancer Treatment Centers of America, University of California San Francisco UCSF) and the Orange County Immune Institute. At UCSF, hyperthermia is combined with radiation therapy to treat prostate cancer. Local and regional hyperthermia are also being used in Canada particularly in integrative oncology clinics.

Low use in the United States may be due to a lingering misperception of high morbidity and mortality rates—assertions not based on current evidence, which has found that CRS/HIPEC is safer and more effective than many alternatives.92

A few cancer centers in the US perform CRS/HIPEC in a large number of patients. Many providers assume that patients tend to have better outcomes from the procedure in the hands of experienced surgeons and staff. However, better outcomes may be outweighed by the disruption of having to travel long distances and be away from home and support networks. A study looking at the differences in outcome between low-, moderate- or high-volume centers found “CRS-HIPEC can be completed at lower volume performing centers to achieve similar short- and long-term outcomes compared to higher performing centers.”93

Cautions

The American Cancer Society notes that “Local hyperthermia can cause pain at the site, infection, bleeding, blood clots, swelling, burns, blistering, and damage to the skin, muscles, and nerves near the treated area.” Bolus pressure has also been reported.94 Oncology Nurse Advisor provides further cautions:95

  • Most normal tissues are not damaged during hyperthermia if the temperature remains under 111°F. However, due to regional differences in tissue characteristics, higher temperatures may occur in various spots. This can result in burns, blisters, discomfort, or pain. Perfusion techniques can cause tissue swelling, blood clots, bleeding, and other damage to the normal tissues in the perfused area; however, most of these side effects are temporary. Whole-body hyperthermia can cause more serious side effects, including cardiac and vascular disorders, but these effects are uncommon. Diarrhea, nausea and vomiting are commonly observed after whole-body hyperthermia.

The development of “hot spots” is more likely if sensation is lacking in the area and the treatment is not adjusted. Dehydration is also possible with hyperthermia. Sarah Soles, ND, at the Integrated Health Clinic in British Columbia, has told BCCT they don’t see gastrointestinal symptoms nor dehydration very often. More commonly, short-term peripheral edema (swelling) can result from the use of intravenous saline and dextrose during the treatment.

Intraperitoneal cisplatin therapy is associated with a risk of anaphylactoid reactions (World Allergy Organization). A 1995 investigation concluded that “a high dose combined with a short infusion time increases the risk of anaphylactoid reactions.”96

Significant hematological toxicity (anemia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia) has been seen in human97 and animal studies.98

HIPEC for treating colorectal cancer is associated with risks including spontaneous bowel perforations or electrolyte imbalances due to using dextrose-based perfusion solutions as a matrix, as well as considerably increased rates of acute renal impairment and bleeding complications in platinum-based HIPEC.99

Integrative Programs, Protocols and Medical Systems

For more information about programs and protocols, see our Integrative Programs and Protocols page.

  • Programs and protocols
    • McKinney protocols100
      • Bladder cancer

Resources

General Hyperthermia Resources

Loco-regional Hyperthermia 

Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy

Other Types of Hyperthermia

More from Our Resources Database

Also known by these names

  • High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)
  • Hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)
  • Hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy (HITHOC)
  • Loco-regional hyperthermia
  • Radiofrequency ablation
  • Whole-body hyperthermia
  • Perfusional hyperthermia

References

  1. Excellus Health Plan, Inc. Medical Policy. Subject: Hyperthermia as a Cancer Treatment. May 17, 2018. Viewed April 22, 2019.
  2. American Cancer Society. Hyperthermia to Treat Cancer. May 3, 2016. Viewed April 23, 2019.
  3. Foster JM, Sleightholm R et al. Morbidity and mortality rates following cytoreductive surgery combined with hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy compared with other high-risk surgical oncology procedures. JAMA Network Open. 2019 Jan 4;2(1):e186847.
  4. National Cancer Institute. Ovarian Epithelial, Fallopian Tube, and Primary Peritoneal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)–Health Professional Version. US Department of Health and Human Services. February 1, 2019. Viewed April 22, 2019.
  5. Marlene and Stewart Greenbaum Comprehensive Cancer Center. Cytoreductive Surgery and HIPEC—FAQs. University of Maryland Medical Center. Viewed April 22, 2019.
  6. American Cancer Society: Hyperthermia to Treat Cancer. May 3, 2016. Viewed April 22, 2019.
  7. National Cancer Institute. Hyperthermia in Cancer Treatment. US Department of Health and Human Services. August 31, 2011. Viewed April 22, 2019.
  8. Yagawa Y, Tanigawa K, Yamamoto M. Cancer immunity and therapy using hyperthermia with immunotherapy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery. Journal of Cancer Metastasis and Treatment. 2017;3:218-230.
  9. Hildebrandt B, Wust P et al. The cellular and molecular basis of hyperthermia. Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology. 2002 Jul;43(1):33-56.
  10. Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology. Ovarian Cancer: Including Fallopian Tube Cancer and Primary Peritoneal Cancer: NCCN Evidence BlocksTM. National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Version 1.2019—March 8, 2019. Viewed April 23, 2019.
  11. van der Zee J. Heating the patient: a promising approach? Annals of Oncology. 2002 Aug;13(8):1173-84.
  12. van der Zee J. Heating the patient: a promising approach? Annals of Oncology. 2002 Aug;13(8):1173-84; Wust P, Hildebrandt B et al. Hyperthermia in combined treatment of cancer. Lancet Oncology. 2002 Aug;3(8):487-97; Falk MH, Issels RD. Hyperthermia in oncology. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2001 Jan-Feb;17(1):1-18.
  13. Masunaga SI, Hiraoka M et al. Phase I/II trial of preoperative thermoradiotherapy in the treatment of urinary bladder cancer. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 1994;10(1):31-40.
  14. van der Zee J, González González D et al. Comparison of radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced pelvic tumours: a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial. Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Group. Lancet (London, England). 2000;355(9210):1119-1125.
  15. Rousskow S. Clinical and economic evaluation of modulated electrohyperthermia concurrent to dose-dense temozolomide 21/28 days regimen in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma: a retrospective analysis of a two-centre German cohort trial with systematic comparison and effect-to-treatment analysis. BMJ Open. 2017;7(11)e017387
  16. Van Gool SW, Makalowski J et al. The induction of immunogenic cell death (ICD) during maintenance chemotherapy and subsequent multimodal immunotherapy for glioblastoma (GBM). Austin Oncology Case Reports. 2018;3(1):1010.
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  18. Jones EL, Prosnitz LR et al. Thermochemoradiotherapy improves oxygenation in locally advanced breast cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. 2004;10:4287-4293.
  19. Vujaskovic Z, Kim DW et al. A phase I/II study of neoadjuvant liposomal doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and hyperthermia in locally advanced breast cancer. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2010;26(5):514-521.
  20. van der Zee J, González González D et al. Comparison of radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced pelvic tumours: a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial. Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Group. Lancet (London, England). 2000;355(9210):1119-1125.
  21. Hegewisch-Becker S, Hossfeld DK et al. Addition of hyperthermia. heat potentiates cancer therapy. [Article in German] MMW Fortschritte der Medizin. 2001 Jun 21;143(25):28-32; Lutgens L, Koper P et al. Radiation therapy combined with hyperthermia versus cisplatin for locally advanced cervical cancer: results of the randomized RADCHOC trial. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2016(120):378-382; Franckena M, Stalpers LJA et al. Long-term improvement in treatment outcome after radiotherapy and hyperthermia in locoregionally advanced cervix cancer: an update of the Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Trial. International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics. 2008;70(4):1176-1182; Harima Y, Nagata K et al. A randomized clinical trial of radiation therapy versus thermoradiotherapy in stage IIIB cervical carcinoma. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 2001;17(2):97-105.
  22. Zolciak-Siwinska A, Piotrkowicz N et al. HDR brachytherapy combined with interstitial hyperthermia in locally advanced cervical cancer patients initially treated with concomitant radiochemotherapy—a phase III study. Radiotherapy and Oncology. 2013;109(2):194-199; Minnaar C, Baeyens A, Kotzen J. Update on phase III randomized clinical trial investigating the effects of the addition of electro-hyperthermia to chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer patients in South Africa. European Journal of Medical Physics. 2016;32(2):151-152; Westermann AM, Jones EL et al. First results of triple-modality treatment combining radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and hyperthermia for the treatment of patients with stage IIB, III, and IVA cervical carcinoma. Cancer. 2005;104(4):763-770.
  23. Berdov BA, Menteshashvili GZ. Thermoradiotherapy of patients with locally advanced carcinoma of the rectum. International Journal of Hyperthermia. 1990;6(5):881-890; van der Zee J, González González D et al. Comparison of radiotherapy alone with radiotherapy plus hyperthermia in locally advanced pelvic tumours: a prospective, randomised, multicentre trial. Dutch Deep Hyperthermia Group. Lancet (London, England). 2000;355(9210):1119-1125..
  24. Hager ED, Dziambor H et al. Deep hyperthermia with radiofrequencies in patients with liver metastases from colorectal cancer. Anticancer Research. 1999;19(4C):3403-3408; Davenport L. CRC with peritoneal metastases: CRS-HIPEC refinements. Medscape Oncology. July 6, 2020. Viewed July 13, 2020.
  25. Kuwano H, Sumiyoshi K et al. Preoperative hyperthermia combined with chemotherapy and irradiation for the treatment of patients with esophageal carcinoma. Tumori. 1995;81(1):18-22.
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