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Choices in complementaryin cancer care, complementary care involves the use of therapies intended to enhance or add to standard conventional treatments; examples include supplements, mind-body approaches such as yoga or psychosocial therapy, and acupuncture cancer care goes beyond conventional care. Complementary care offers therapies and practices that “complement” conventional therapies.

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Complementary therapies that go beyond self care include herbs and supplements, repurposed drugs, mind-body approaches and many other kinds of therapies.

Three guidelines as you explore complementary therapies:

First, you may want to review the science on therapies that interest you. We have a growing database of complementary therapy reviews that can help.

Second, listen to your intuition. If you are drawn to a therapy, we believe you should consider it carefully. If the potential for harm is small, and if it will not be a financial burden for you, you risk very little by exploring it. As long as you’ve got your conventional therapies covered. As Donald Abrams, MD, says: “The lower the likelihood of harm, the lower the burden of proof.” Look at how experts use the therapy (see our reviews of complementary therapies).

Third, if a therapy is costly and you have to travel to get it, or if a center claims to cure your cancer, be far more careful. The biggest danger is practitioners or centers that claim to cure cancer using complementary therapies alone and who charge a lot and require travel. Some are easily discovered to be fraudulent. Others are sincere but may not deliver on their claims. Navigating the claims of these centers is a complex undertaking.

An optimal approach is to find a cancer navigator or guide knowledgeable about the kinds of practitioners or centers that interest you. Ralph Moss and his Moss Reports have been a standard resource for people investigating controversial centers for many years. The reports are quite costly but well worth the cost before you invest thousands of dollars in travel and the treatment. Whenever possible, it is wise to talk to patients and practitioners before you sign up for an expensive treatment protocol. Look for online reviews. Visiting the center and seeing it yourself before you sign up is best of all.

We hope our deeply researched resources on complementary therapies help you in your search.

Wishing you well,


Michael Lerner Co-Founder
Michael Lerner Co-Founder

What is complementary cancer care?

What is complementary cancer care, exactly? It’s a set of medical approaches, practices, and therapies that are believed to promote healing, treat disease, and/or foster wellness, but that are outside the conventional medical culture of a place. Complementary cancer care is often further defined by what it is not:

  • It’s not typically considered conventional medical care, the care you’ll receive from a doctor of the dominant medical culture where you live. Because conventional medical care varies from country to country, some approaches may be conventional in one place and complementary in another.1Traditional, Complementary and Integrative Medicine. World Health Organization. Viewed August 4, 2021. Complementary therapies can become conventional over time, too. Acupuncture was considered strictly a complementary therapy just a few decades ago, but it has become widely accepted in many conventional practices.
  • Complementary practices are often not regulated by government agencies or boards, and complementary therapies typically don’t need a prescription.
  • It is not typically covered by private or government insurance, although this is changing in some places.
  • Complementary approaches and therapies are probably not taught in the dominant medical culture’s schools, although this is also changing.

What are complementary therapies?

Complementary therapies include a wide range of approaches. In the US and Canada, these approaches and practices are generally considered complementary:

  • Natural products, herbs, nutrients, and supplements
  • Specialized diets and metabolic therapies
  • Exercise and movement therapies
  • Mind-body, spiritual, and consciousness-changing approaches
  • Biological treatments such as vaccines
  • Repurposed drugs, novel timing of treatments, and other off-label, overlooked or novel cancer approaches, which we call “ONCAs” 
  • Energy therapies
  • Manipulative and body-based methods
  • Therapies using heat, cold, sound, light or cutting-edge radiotherapy

Some therapies are ancient and still widely used in traditional medicine in China, India, and other places. Others may be quite new. Still others—such as repurposed drugs—have been used for decades in conventional medicine, but not primarily for cancer care. Some require a prescription, while others can be found in supermarkets or health food stores. Some involve taking a pill, while others involve a practice or activity.

How are complementary therapies used in cancer care?

One commonality is that none of these therapies has been shown to cure cancer on its own. These are generally supportive therapies that can bolster your body’s biological and chemical balance (terrain), address side effects, and reduce your risk of recurrence. Some can improve your response to conventional treatment. Thus, they complement conventional cancer care. 

Complementary therapies can make a big difference in your ability to complete conventional treatments, in your quality of life, in your experience of side effects and symptoms, and in your overall health and wellness. For people who have run out of conventional treatment options, some may even prolong life and stabilize disease for a time. But we do not offer them to you as cancer cures, for the evidence does not support this.

Research constraints in complementary cancer care

A lack of evidence is not the same as evidence that a therapy doesn’t provide any medical benefit. Because many complementary therapies aren’t likely to provide huge profits for manufacturers, less research money may be available. This limits the amount of research, and especially the size of research studies, on many therapies. Huge research studies lasting several years cost millions or even hundreds of millions of dollars. Complementary therapies often don’t have such funding.

More complex research, combining complementary therapies and self-care practices, is also not well funded. Some research shows that combinations of therapies may have synergistic impacts on cancer, but obtaining funding for studies with more than one or two variables is challenging. Highly controlled studies are prioritized, even at the expense of potentially better outcomes. 

Dr. Wayne Jonas advocates for the use of an “evidence house”, an alternative framework in which to analyze complementary therapies, and shares, “As most clinicians know, the reasons that patients recover from illness are complex and synergistic, and many cannot simply be isolated in controlled environments.”2Jonas WB. The evidence house: how to build an inclusive base for complementary medicine. Western Journal of Medicine. 2001 Aug;175(2):79-80. Jonas believes that randomized controlled trials play an important role in assessing therapies, but other factors such as clinician’s experience should also be incorporated. 

In whole person cancer care, mental and emotional healing may be as much a focus as physical healing. Healing can be through many means, including the use of mind-body therapies.

How can you find out if complementary therapies can help you?

Although many complementary therapies lack large studies solidly showing efficacy, quite a bit of published evidence of smaller studies can inform us if complementary therapies may provide medical benefits. We share these studies in our therapy reviews. We also report when no evidence shows that a therapy is effective.

We’ve reviewed dozens of complementary therapies with you in mind. We began with therapies that our advisors told us they use with the most common types of cancer. We have expanded—and continue to add—more therapies across the spectrum of complementary care. We don’t shy away from more controversial therapies.

In each review, you can quickly assess how a therapy may work best for you. We evaluate therapies separately for these medical benefits so you can easily determine whether it meets your needs:

  • Improving treatment outcomes
  • Optimizing your body terrainthe internal conditions of your body, including nutritional status, fitness, blood sugar balance, hormone balance, inflammation and more
  • Managing side effects and promoting wellness
  • Reducing cancer risk
CancerChoices ratings for acupuncture

If a therapy hasn’t been studied rigorously, another factor to consider is medical experience over decades or even hundreds of years showing good effects and safety. For this reason, we include information about expert use of therapies in all our reviews.

If a therapy shows some evidence of effectiveness, and it likely promotes health and does not have harmful side effects, and you are drawn to trying it, we underscore Donald Abrams, MD’s point: “The lower the likelihood of harm, the lower the burden of proof.”

See Therapy Ratings for a full description of where we find evidence and how we evaluate therapies.

Work with someone who can guide you

Some therapies—especially several natural products, supplements, and repurposed drugs—may interact with your conventional treatments. Some may enhance the effects of chemotherapy or even protect noncancerous tissue, while others should not be used during chemo/radiotherapy or surgery. Some should not be used by people with other existing medical conditions (comorbidities), such as heart disease or kidney disease. Some natural products or supplements should not be used with each other. For these reasons, we say that wise use, guided by a medical professional trained in their use, is important.

Exploring complementary therapies

While being mindful of the cautions, you may find great benefit from using these therapies as appropriate for your cancer type and stage. 

Let’s start exploring the options!



Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS

Senior Clinical Consultant
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Laura Pole is senior clinical consultant for CancerChoices. Laura is an oncology clinical nurse specialist who has been providing integrative oncology clinical care, navigation, consultation, and education services for over 40 years. She is the co-creator and co-coordinator of the Integrative Oncology Navigation Training at Smith Center for Healing and the Arts in Washington, DC. Laura also manages the “Media Watch Cancer News That You Can Use” listserv for Smith Center/Commonweal. In her role as a palliative care educator and consultant, Laura has served as statewide Respecting Choices Faculty for the Virginia POST (Physician Orders for Scope of Treatment) Collaborative as well as provided statewide professional education on palliative and end-of-life care for the Virginia Association for Hospices and Palliative Care.

For CancerChoices, Laura curates content and research, networks with clinical and organizational partners, brings awareness and education of integrative oncology at professional and patient conferences and programs, and translates research into information relevant to the patient experience as well as clinical practice.

Laura sees her work with CancerChoices as a perfect alignment of all her passions, knowledge and skills in integrative oncology care. She is honored to serve you.

Laura Pole, RN, MSN, OCNS Senior Clinical Consultant

Nancy Hepp, MS

Lead Researcher and Program Manager
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Ms. Hepp is a researcher and communicator who has been writing and editing educational content on varied health topics for more than 20 years. She serves as lead researcher, program manager, and writer for CancerChoices. Her graduate work in research and cognitive psychology, her master’s degree in instructional design, and her certificate in web design have all guided her in writing and presenting information for a wide variety of audiences and uses. Nancy’s service as faculty development coordinator in the Department of Family Medicine at Wright State University also provided experience in medical research, plus insights into medical education and medical care from the professional’s perspective.

Nancy Hepp, MS Lead Researcher and Program Manager


Miki Scheidel

Co-Founder and Creative Director
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Miki Scheidel is Co-founder and creative director of CancerChoices. She led the effort to transform Beyond Conventional Cancer Therapies, the prior version of CancerChoices, to its current form. Miki and her family were deeply affected by her father’s transformative experience with integrative approaches to metastatic kidney cancer. That experience inspires her work as president of the Scheidel Foundation and as volunteer staff at CancerChoices. She previously worked with the US Agency for International Development and Family Health International among other roles. She received her graduate degree in international development from Georgetown University, a graduate certificate in nonprofit management from George Mason University, and a Bachelor of Arts from Gettysburg College.

Miki Scheidel Co-Founder and Creative Director

Last update: March 13, 2023

Last full resource review: August 2021

CancerChoices provides information about integrative in cancer care, a patient-centered approach combining the best of conventional care, self care and evidence-informed complementary care in an integrated plan cancer care. We review complementaryin cancer care, complementary care involves the use of therapies intended to enhance or add to standard conventional treatments; examples include supplements, mind-body approaches such as yoga or psychosocial therapy, and acupuncture therapies and self-care lifestyle actions and behaviors that may impact cancer outcomes; examples include eating health-promoting foods, limiting alcohol, increasing physical activity, and managing stress practices to help patients and professionals explore and integrate the best combination of conventionalthe cancer care offered by conventionally trained physicians and most hospitals; examples are chemotherapy, surgery, and radiotherapy and complementary therapies and practices for each person.

Our staff have no financial conflicts of interest to declare. We receive no funds from any manufacturers or retailers gaining financial profit by promoting or discouraging therapies mentioned on this site.

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